We need to understand clearly that it is very difficult to explain or understand fully the concept of Karma and Karma phala
KarmaNohyapi boddhavyam boddhavyam ca vikarmaNah !
akarmaNasca boddhavyam gahaNa karmaNo gatih !!
--- Bhagavad GItA
As per Dharma SAstras, there are different types of Sins classified as mahApApa, PAtaka, anupAtaka, upapApa, atipAtaka, mahApAtaka, upapAtaka, jAtibhramsakara, SankarIkaraNa, apAtrIkaraNa, malAvaha, PrakIrNaka and so on.
Just like a drop of oil spreading over water, the sin gets transmitted from one person to another by association with a sinner.
sankrAmanti hi papAni taila bindurivAmbhasi !
cAndrAyaNam Yavakam tulA purushairiva ca!
--- ParASara smrti
One who blesses the sinner gets infected by the sins of the latter.
Kurvantyanugraham ye tu tat pApam teshu Gacchati !
SarIrasyAtyaye prApte vadanti niyamam tu ye !!
--- ParASara smrti
Through DakshiNa the sins get transferred to the BrAhmaNa and through the recitation of the Vedas, the pApas of the BrAhmaNa get nullified.
DakshiNAnAm BrAhmaNena BrAhmaNasya chandobhi:chandaSam svAdhyAyenapahata pApmA......
---- TaittirIya AraNyaka
(1)In the case of a realized person, whatever karma he does after realization gets distributed to those who praise and follow him and also to those who find fault with him. The former gets his puNya phala and the latter the PApa , if any. He experiences the prArabdha karma while his Sancita karma gets neutralized.
(2) Like a young calf which recognizes the mother cow amidst thousand other cows, the karma done by a person follows him meticulously.
(3) Like the tree which yields flowers and fruits at the appointed seasons, the fruit of action also manifests at the proper time.
(4) When there is great natural calamity like famine etc, all the people including great Rishis by-pass the dharma and adopt what is known as the Apad dharma.
(5) If a person cuts trees with an axe, then the person who cuts incurs the sin and not the Axe nor the maker of the Axe.
(6) For one's action Supreme is not responsible.
(7) There is the Supreme who by his Laws dispenses the Karma Phalam.
(8) Good and bad deeds rotate like a wheel.
(9) Karma done without the sense of doership and offered at the feet of the Supreme does not bind one.
(10) The Supreme intervenes in the case of a very select few (who deserve) and neutralises their karma due to his divine grace.
prAyascittAnyaSeshANi tapah karmAtmakAni vai !
yAni teshamaSeshANAm KrishNAnussmaraNam param !!
By doing prAyascitta as per dharma SAstras, one’s sins get destroyed.
prAyascitta Sabdah pApakshayArthe naimittike karma viSesha rUdah !
Regarding distribution of Karma of a Self-realized person, Atma bodha explains that the critics share his sins and the followers share his puNyas.
Ye jnAninam nindanti, dvishanti, du:kha pradAnam kurvanti tAnprati jnAnikrtam sarvamAgAmi kriyamANam yadavAcyam karma tatpApAtmakam gacchati !
BhagavAn KrshNa assures that He would deliver one from all sins if one unconditionally surrenders to Him. Hence there is no sin which the Supreme cannot nullify.Sarva dharmAn parityajya mAmekam SaraNam vraja !
Aham tvA sarva pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi Ma Sucah !!
--- Bhagavad GIta
kalau kalmasha chittAnAm pApadravyopa jIvinAm 1
vidhikriyA vihInAnAm gatir govinda kIrtanam !!
natAvat pApamedheta yannAmnA na hatam hare: !
atireka bhayAdahu: prAyascittAntaram vrthA !!
--- Yoga YAjnavalkya:
sakṛdeva prapannAya tavAsmIti ca yAcate |
abhayaṃ sarva bhUtebhyo dadAmi Etat vratam mama ||
--- VAlmIkI RAmAyaNam
(1) Depending on the gravity and intensity of the sins, it can affect only the doer or along with him his wife or son or daughter or any one associated with him or some or all of them together at any point of time.
(2) The Sins can be destroyed by following Karma yoga, jnAna yoga or Bhakti yoga as aforesaid. Else it may affect the person and his family depending on the severity of the Sins committed.
(3) Unconditional surrender to the lotus feet of the Supreme by following Bhakti Yoga will definitely nullify all sins and one will get released. This is applicable to all.
(4) All the lineal descendants including sons , daughters, grand sons and grand daughters may get impacted depending upon the severity of the Sin. The extent and nature of the impact is very difficult to predict.
It is not possible to draw a matrix of all the sins in the world and then say who are all will be affected, to what extent, when ( whether in this birth or later), in what sequence, why and how.